About theshepherdandtheolivetree

I’m a mother, a writer, and an enthusiastic gardener, forager, and cook. With my two children, Jasper and Sylvie, I live in two rural communities on opposite sides of the Atlantic: one at the edge of the mountains in southeastern Montana, the other where the mountains meet the sea on the southern Peloponnese Peninsula in Greece. As a writer, I try to stick to subjects that center around food, but like most freelancers, my stories hit on a wide variety of subjects, from travel to rodeo, yoga to an interview in long-form of the New Jersey-born kirtan wallah, Krishna Das. My work can be found in The Boston Globe’s Travel section, The Art of Eating and Afar. I have also written for Saveur, Culture, the Utne Reader, The Sun Magazine, Natural Home and Garden, Yoga, Yoga Journal and for Slow Food’s online news service, Sloweb. To reach me, email poulithra AT gmail DOT com

Eating Flowers, Part Three: Capers Preserved in Vinegar

What to do with these fresh-picked capers?

Since my first post on capers, several people have written with details on their own approaches to preserving the unopened flower of the Capparis Spinosa. I’m amazed by the diversity of methods, the subtle variations within the three caper-preserving themes: salt-curing, sun-drying and preserving in a brine.

After taste-testing two batches of capers preserved by my mother—one salt-cured, the other in a brine of salt, water and vinegar—I’ve decided that my favorite flavor comes from the salt-cured caper, hands down. The capers she preserved in water, salt and vinegar, while delicious, also tasted distinctly like…vinegar. The salt-cured capers allowed for the full flavor of the caper bud to flourish.

I thought perhaps I was alone in my caper preferences until yesterday when I discovered a link on Facebook to this to-the-point piece on capers by the esteemed Ed Behr, the editor of the beautiful and also esteemed food journal, The Art of Eating. (On an entirely different note, I’m honored to say that I have a story in the current edition of the magazine…my first!) On capers, Ed, as usual, is forthright with his opinion. (The article’s title is, “Capers in Dry Salt Are Better.”) Also as usual, his writing is chock full of interesting information and insight culled from years of travel, tasting, researching and writing about food. You can trust Ed to know his stuff.

But whether or not capers preserved in salt are truly better is, in my opinion, up to the taster. Since diversity is indeed the spice of life, I’ll post a last method for preserving capers, one that includes vinegar, lots. Have at it.

Pickled Capers
Pack your fresh, washed capers into sterile jars. Bring a small pan of white wine vinegar to boil (measure enough vinegar to fill your jar) with a pinch of salt and a bay leaf. Pour the boiling vinegar over the capers, filling to the rim. Close the lid tight. For a good seal, turn the jar upside down for twenty minutes. Store in a cool, dark place for about two months before opening.

Καλή όρεξη! And, as ever, thank you for reading The Shepherd and the Olive Tree.


Eating Flowers, Part Two: Capers Preserved in Sea Salt


Like us, the ancient Greeks and Romans ate capers. They also used the roots and leaves of the caper bush, or Capparis Spinosa, for medicinal purposes. The Roman naturalist and author, Pliny the Elder, noted the caper in Naturalis Historia, his encyclopedic study of geography, anthropology, and natural history. And the Greek scholar, Athenaeus, mused upon it in his fifteen-book work, The Deipnosophistae, or The Banquet of the Learned or (my favorite translation of the title) Philosophers at Dinner, in which the protagonist, Ulpian, is the host of a long, leisurely banquet throughout which literary and historical conversations course.

It seems the bush’s medicinal properties warrant the attention: The ancient Greeks used capers to reduce flatulence. In Ayurveda, the Hindu system of traditional medicine, capers are known as hepatic stimulants and protectors, improving liver function. Today we understand that when a caper bud is dehydrated, salted, or brined, it releases mustard oil (glucocapparin). That enzymatic reaction then leads to the formation of rutin, a powerful antioxidant bioflavonoid.

Medicinal properties aside, many of us agree that the fruit of the Capparis Spinosa is delicious. Since the ancient Greeks preserved capers—and olives—in sea salt (brining methods were developed later), we’ll begin with salt, too.

Salt-Cured Capers

Sea salt

  1. Sort the capers carefully, picking off any long stems.
  2. Rinse them in a colander; pat dry.
  3. Place the capers in a jar, layering them with sea salt. (If you have a lot of capers, it’s best to use two small jars.)
  4. Cover the jar with its lid and shake it to make sure the salt is well distributed.
  5. Remove the lid and cover the jar with a paper napkin; close with a rubber band.
  6. Leave the jar where it will get some air, but not in direct sunlight.
  7. Every day, drain off any liquid that forms, adding another spoonful of salt in the process.
  8. When the capers stop giving off liquid (in 5-10 days), transfer to a clean jar and close with a lid.

Salt-cured capers can be kept in a cool, dark place for up to one year. Before using, rinse in cold water. They may also be used unrinsed in place of salt.

Since my love affair with the caper began, I’ve noticed that there are subtle variations within the curing-in-salt theme. My friend Hank Shaw told me that blanching the capers for one minute before salt-curing them will halt the enzymatic process and preserve the buds’ bright green color. A method used in Sicily, where salted capers are common, calls for dehydrating them before beginning the process above.

Eating Flowers: The fruit of the Capparis Spinosa

Who, while chewing the dark green orb of a caper, would imagine that the mighty little bud that adds such intensity to salads, fava and (my favorite) pasta puttanesca is, in actuality, a flower in the making? A bud that, left alone, will open to reveal an exquisite, aromatic blossom?

I certainly didn’t until, during a visit to Greece about four years back, friends suggested we go foraging for them. Capers? Really? And so we did.

In our flip flops, we waded through tide pools, clambered over and around boulders, and scrambled across a scree slope to reach the base of a precipitous cliff. There we plucked the buds from an immense caper bush that cascaded from a tiny cleft in the rock wall.

After that experience, I was hooked. Not only do I love the flavor of the caper bud, there is something that appeals to my inner romantic about plucking an unopened flower with the intention of eating it. Not to mention the adventure of getting to the places where the tiny nuggets of flavor thrive.

Where the village meets the sea, caper bushes thrive. The plants tolerate salt and often grow from the salt-sprayed cliffs and rocks along the shore. My daughter loves to gather capers here, near a favorite swimming hole.

In his seminal work Enquiry into Plants, the ancient Greek philosopher Theophrastus wrote about the caper bush, noting the plant’s “unwillingness to grow on cultivated land.” While caper bushes are cultivated for commercial production today, they grow best in the wild–in the harshest of conditions, the less soil the better. I’ve found them spilling from a crack in a stone fortification in medieval Monemvasia, sprouting from a fissure along the edge of a paved road, and growing in the schoolyard at the Poulithra elementary school. The same friend who took me on my first caper caper (sorry—I couldn’t help myself) discovered a caper bush growing from a crack in the second-story wall of his beautiful little house.

At the Poulithra Dimotiko (elementary school).

While capers grow everywhere around Poulithra, and some people here do harvest and cook with them, I’m told they are not a common ingredient in this region of Greece. They are, however, a staple in other parts of Greece, particularly in the Cyclades where they grow prolifically and are traditionally used in sauces, stews and salads. Those who do pick them, not only pick and preserve the bud of the caper bush, but often its tenderest leaves and branches too.

This horiatiki, or village salad, is topped with home-pickled capers. Look closely to see the leaves and branches included in the mix. Delicious!

Unpicked, the caper bud opens to reveal a lovely purple and white flower, fragrant and a bit unruly with floppy petals and long stamens. Its beauty is fleeting as the blossom lasts only a day before withering away.

Picked, they are cured either with salt, sun or vinegar. (Like olives, capers are never eaten unprocessed.) In Greece, how one processes them depends largely on the region. On the Cycladic island of Santorini, they are traditionally sun-dried until they become rock hard. When ready to use, they are soaked overnight. On other Cycladic islands, capers are often salt-cured and, again, are soaked in water before use.

I haven’t tasted salt-cured or sun-dried capers yet, although I do plan to soon. I intend to try the sun-dried method myself (and will document it here, I promise), and my mother happens to have a jar of caper buds curing in salt on her kitchen counter as I write this. I am eager to taste the results of both methods as I’ve read that, without the vinegar, the flavors are pungent and earthy; citrusy rather than pickled. Pure caper, if you will.

Coming next: Methods for curing the unopened flowers of the caper bush and recipes for using them. As ever, thank you for reading The Shepherd and the Olive Tree!

The village gardens grow under the shadow of economic crisis

Has it really been a month since we arrived for summer in the village? Impossible for me to believe, but it’s true. Freed from the activities of our usual lives—school, carpool, piano lessons, meetings, deadlines—our routines are determined not by the ticking of the clock but by our bodily rhythms, our needs and desires. Hence, the days blur from one to the next and time slips by so quickly. Now that it is hot (96 is the high forecast for today), the routine is at its most basic: We wake, we eat, we swim.

When it grows too hot to remain on the beach, even in the shadows of the olive trees that line it, we return to the cool shade of our apartment to eat lunch and rest again, the afternoon sound of the cicadas our background music. In the shadow of the orange tree in our little garden or the cool of their beds, stripped of all bedding but sheets, Jasper and Sylvie spend the hottest hours of the day. They read, they doodle, they doze. Then, when the sun sets, they come alive, returning to the sea, spinning through the village on their bicycles, or joining a match of street soccer. In Greece in summertime, we stay up and outside much later than we ever do in the States. How can one leave the beauty of a warm starlit night, the sweet scents of nixtolouloudo (evening primrose) and jasmine perfuming the air, especially when the rest of the village has also come to life?

In between the swimming and cooking and washing up, in between the joys and challenges of parenting, I squeeze in work, or try to. Truth be told, I’m not accomplishing much. Our skin has become nut-brown, our hair blonde, and my wallet and bank account nearly empty. So be it. we’re in Greece and that seems to be the way things are here for many these days.

Which explains why, when we arrived in the village in May, nearly everyone I talked to would answer my question, “How have you been since I last saw you?” with a stream of references to the economic crisis. One day I ran into a friend, a mother of two children about the same age as my own. She put it this way: “For everyone in Greece, it’s a struggle. We pay higher taxes, we pay for things we didn’t have to pay for before—school books for our children, medicine for our parents—and on salaries or pensions that have been slashed. It’s difficult, but if you live in the village, you’re lucky. If you live in the village, you can survive.” And then she gestured to the enormous garden she shares with her extended family.

Eleni’s family’s garden.

“I can plant potatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, tomatoes. Between our garden and our trees (meaning her olive trees), I can feed my children. My people in Athens can’t.”

Indeed, for the first time in decades, hunger has become an issue in Greece, particularly in its urban centers. But in the village, while people worry about the state of their beloved country and about their children’s futures, there is also a common belief that if they remain here they will be just fine. My 91 year-old friend Panagiota Hiotis agrees. She lived through the Axis occupation of Greece, through the Great Famine, and through other difficult times. Over a simple lunch at her home last November, she told me, “No matter what’s happening in the world, not much changes here. We tend our gardens and our olive trees, we make our cheese and our bread. We gather wild greens. We live the way we always have. Some times are leaner than others, but we survive them.” For those who have divested from the local economy and the region’s subsistence-based lifestyle—for example, as one friend did by selling his land and investing in the stock market—things are not this simple. But for many, they are. For many, Panagiota’s words ring true.

Perhaps the most obvious crisis-related change I have seen here is the amount of space in the village devoted to vegetable gardening. It’s grown, considerably. Where there were weeds, there are now potatoes. Tomato plants climb bamboo canes in a once-empty lot overlooking the town beach. In flower beds alongside houses, beans and pepper plants grow among the flowers. A friend revived the garden plot his father kept 20-some years ago beneath the village aqueduct.

In addition to the gardens, there are apricot, orange, lemon, almond and fig trees, grape arbors and groves and groves of olive trees. And then there are the wild edibles—greens, bulbs, oregano, thyme, chamomile. In other words, food is everywhere. For this reason, the village—perhaps like other rural communities throughout Greece—is about the best place I can imagine being whilst weathering the economic storm.

I don’t plan to write about the crisis much this summer. Nor will I write about the elections. There are plenty of people who write about both, and with much greater insight and expertise than I could ever muster. But now that I’m in the flow (thanks in a large part to my dear friend/ex-husband’s arrival–he is here to visit the children), I will write and post regularly. As ever, thanks so much for reading. Please stay tuned for more!

The bulb of the wild hyacinth: Delicious, storied and an ancient Greek aphrodisiac, too

ImageTo the ancient Greeks and Romans, the volvos, or bulb, of the wild tassel hyacinth was an infallible remedy for the diminished sexual appetite. Indeed, faith in the hyacinth’s amatory powers was so strong that, in ancient Rome, newlyweds ate the bulbs before retiring to their nuptial bed. Today in Greece, that faith persists—it is rare that my village friends will place a plate of volvoi (plural for volvos) on the table without a wink and a nudge.

This time of year, as springtime brings warmth and flowers to Greece, the bulb’s properties may not be at their highest demand; however, it is in spring when the wild tassel hyacinth (muscari comosum) grows in profusion throughout the greening meadows and dappled shade of olive groves across the country. With a lovely fragrance and a bitter bulb, the flower’s etymology is just as bittersweet, leading us back to ancient Greece and Hyacinthus, the divine hero of Greek mythology, the beautiful lover of the god Apollo who was also loved by the West Wind, Zephyrus.

According to myth, one spring day the lovers, Apollo and Hyacinthus, tried their hands at the discus throw, each vying to outdo the other. With each try, the glittering disk flew higher and higher. Finally, the powerful Apollo gathered all his strength and let the discus fly. It rose swiftly, slicing the clouds in two. Then, it began to tumble down.

Hyacinthus ran to meet it. The discus landed, but after falling from such a great height, it bounced, striking the young man in the head. He let out a groan and died. Weeping, Apollo held his lover. Out of the blood from Hyacinthus’ wounds, mingled with the tears of Apollo, sprang the flowering hyacinth. A twist in the tale implicates Zephyrus for Hyacinthus’ death. Jealous that the beautiful young man loved Apollo rather than him, Zephyrus blew the discus off course.
Despite the plant’s tragic beginnings, its bulb is delicious. Traditionally part of the vegetarian Lenten table, volvoi are also served year-round as meze with tsipouro, ouzo, or raki. This time of year, one can buy volvoi at the farmer’s markets in Athens. In Italy, particularly in the region of Puglia (the heel of Italy’s boot), the bulbs are very popular, finding their way into a variety of dishes and are known there as lampascioni.

Many of our neighbors in the village forage for the bulb of the wild tassel hyacinth, but since doing so takes a spade and no small amount of effort, I have only harvested them once. Even then I was bothered by the conundrum of harvesting bulbs. As my friend Hank Shaw says, to eat a bulb is to kill the plant. But one can harvest sustainably (according to Shaw the forager’s code is to take no more than a quarter of any stand of plants), so forage we did. Afterwards, we gave the bulbs to my friend Patra who roasted them in olive oil and sea salt. That night, rainy and cold for late April, we ate beside a fire in the fireplace at Patra’s, scooping up the volvoi with homemade bread, baked in a wood-fired oven. Slightly bitter and peppery, the bulbs had infused the olive oil she cooked them in with their flavor. The thought of them now makes my mouth water, they were so delicious. Along with the roasted volvoi and bread, we ate a bit of touloumotiri and, of course, drank some village wine. It was a simple and a fine meal.

The wild tassel hyacinth grows in the States too, in the Pacific Northwest and parts of the Midwest and Southeast, but if you can’t find muscari comosum in your region, pearl onions can substitute for today’s recipe, although the taste will be markedly different. (Ancient Greeks also believed that onions were aphrodisiacs. If they were right, the substitution shouldn’t affect the outcome!)
This recipe is my attempt to translate the dish Patra made that spring night we feasted on volvoi, cheese, bread and wine. In truth, Patra used no herbs, just olive oil and sea salt. But I like the flavor of the herbs combined with the fruity olive oil and the peppery bitterness of the bulbs. The choice, of course, is yours.

Roasted Volvoi
1 lb volvoi
Enough olive oil to generously coat the volvoi in the baking pan…and then some!
Oregano, thyme or fresh rosemary, to taste
Sea salt, to taste

  1. Clean the bulbs, scoring the end of each with an cross.
  2. Place the volvoi in a saucepan, adding enough water to cover them. Bring the water to a boil and boil the bulbs for about a minute. Drain and allow to cool.
  3. Preheat the oven to 450º.
  4. Place the bulbs in a shallow baking dish large enough to hold them in one layer.
  5. Drizzle olive oil generously over the bulbs; toss to coat. Sprinkle with sea salt and herbs.
  6. Roast in a 450º oven for about 40 minutes, turning twice.

Kαλή όρεξη! (Good appetite!) And thanks, as ever, for reading The Shepherd and the Olive Tree.

“Mama always said there’d be days like this…”

Dearest Readers,

Please forgive my silence. I’ve been absolutely swamped these past few weeks with story deadlines, my book proposal (a new version, which my agent wants me to complete “ASAP”), my children’s school and extracurricular activities, and life in general. As a result, The Shepherd and the Olive Tree has been sorely neglected.

As have my children’s dinners. If the battery in my camera weren’t dead (also a product of neglect), I’d take a photo for you of the frozen pizza box sitting on my counter this morning–the detritus of last night’s dinner. As we were eating breakfast in the kitchen before school a few hours ago, my son laughed and pointed at the box’s lower left-hand corner. “You should post this on your blog, Mom!” he said. Beneath a photo of a man’s hands kneading pizza dough, it read, in all caps, “PRODUCT IS NOT HANDMADE.” We all laughed, understanding just how fitting a photo it would be to accompany this post–an illustration of the zaniness of our lives right now. I love that my children see the irony and humor in the fact that I’m spending my days writing about food (that is very much handmade) for my book proposal, yet I only have time to feed them frozen pizza. Ah, life as a modern-day mom.

In any case, I’m working on a new post and there is much fresh material to come, for in 35 days (who’s counting?) we leave for our summer in the village where I will be gathering many stories, photos and recipes for your delectation.

Until my next post, and always, I thank you for your interest in The Shepherd and the Olive Tree. And I ask that you please stay tuned. I won’t be serving frozen pizzas–or holding back on my posts here–for much longer.

An ancient Greek poet, fasting foods, and a recipe from Patience Gray’s Honey from a Weed


Hesiod and the muses dancing on Mount Helicon (Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

fools all! who never learned
how much better than the whole the half is,
nor how much good there is
in living on mallow and asphodel.

When last I posted, I promised that next I would explore a bit of the history and use in Greece of the yellow split pea, the mighty little legume that serves as the base for Fava, a delicious vegetarian dish common on the Lenten table. I will get to that, but last night I stumbled upon the above quote, from the ancient Greek poet Hesiod, while thumbing through Patience Gray’s classic tome, Honey from a Weed,  and, well, my intent became a bit muddied.


In Honey, a wild and sensuous memoir-cookbook, Gray describes living on the Greek island of Naxos as well as in Tuscany, Catalonia and Apulia in the 1960s. She had abandoned her native England to join her lover, the Belgian sculptor Norman Mommens, whose appetite for marble led the couple to follow a vein of it through the Mediterranean. There the two lived simply but beautifully off the foods Gray cultivated and foraged while Mommens quarried and sculpted his beloved stone.

“Good cooking,” Gray wrote, “is born out in communities where the supply of food is conditioned by the seasons…Once we lose touch with the spendthrift aspect of nature’s provisions epitomized in the raising of a crop, we are in danger of losing touch with life itself.”

Hauling her own water, coaxing what crops she could from the stony earth, and preparing local dishes, Gray came to understand the cooking of these places as she never would have from afar.

On Hesiod’s quote, Gray said: “If you are poor and proud enough the half can be made to seem far better than the whole. And if you live among Greeks for long it is pride you are chiefly up against. Poverty at all times stared one in the face. It was a way of life diametrically opposed to the wishful thinking that a consumer society inspires…Each household (in Greece) was more or less self-sufficient, their purchases being limited to paraffin for lamps and cooking, salt, sugar, soap, tobacco, flour, rice, spaghetti, coffee, and during fasting times compulsory tarama and slabs of halva.”

Gray, of course, was writing in the 1960s and even then in the past-tense about Greece, but I find her descriptions to be relevant today. Visit an average house in the village we call home part of each year (or on the island of Spetses, where I spent part of my childhood, or likely throughout much of rural Greece) and you’ll find that the list of provisions she describes still applies. Add to it a television, usually small and boxy, circa 1990-something, perhaps some sweets, and you’ve just about got it.
ImageBut to bring the discussion around again to fasting and, yes, yellow split peas…

Yellow split peas are a variety of the pod fruit, Pisum sativum, or field pea, and are part of the legume family. One of the world’s earliest cultivated food crops, split peas have been a staple in Greece since antiquity. (The field pea still grows wild in Iran, Ethiopia and Afghanistan.)

In Siren Feasts, an excellent history of food and gastronomy in Greece, Andrew Dalby writes that split peas were cultivated in Greece as early as 6,000 BC. I’ve also read that vendors sold bowls of split pea soup from large, steaming vats on the stone-paved streets of ancient Athens. The soup is even mentioned by the playwright Aristophanes in “The Birds” written in 414 BC. Today, the legume is still παντού (everywhere) in Greece, making frequent appearances on tables in tavernas and homes throughout the country, particularly during fasting times.

Split peas are small but nutritionally mighty, chock full of B vitamins, protein, isoflavones, soluble fiber and virtually no fat. They’re good for the heart, the digestive system and for preventing a slew of diseases, from diabetes to cancer.

Although split peas are grown throughout much of Greece, the island of Santorini is perhaps most famous for their cultivation. Nourished by the island’s rich volcanic soils and naturally sun-dried, the yellow split peas of Santorini were included on the European Union’s list of “Protected Designation of Origin” foods because of their unique flavor and history.

Shortly after commenting on Hesiod’s quote in Honey from a Weed, Patience Gray gives a recipe for another common and nutritious fasting dish, Fasolakia. I’ve already posted one recipe for Fasolakia here, but Gray’s is different. For one thing, it’s made with fresh white haricot beans. For another, it comes with no small amount of commentary and local color. In Ms. Gray’s words, the recipe…

“When there was a crop of fresh haricot beans Angelos (Gray’s neighbor and friend) sent his daughter Kalliope armed with a large saucepan, 2 kilos (4 ½ pounds) of fat white beans, some fresh tomatoes, a few large onions, two big potatoes, parsley, celery fronds and basil, with instructions to give me a perfect example of how to cook them. There was only one way of doing this. Kalliope was 16, very correctly brought up, and made me feel that piety in culinary matters was a specific for preserving life.

The beans were immersed in cold spring water in the enormous pot. Those that floated to the surface were discarded. She lit the outdoor fire in the little courtyard, boiled up the beans with a pinch of bicarbonate of soda. After cooking vigorously for twenty minutes the water was poured through a colander onto the path outside and the beans were rinsed in cold water.

She then covered the bottom of the pot copiously with olive oil, chopped up celery and parsley and put them in. She put the pot on a steady fire and proceeded to add the beans, the onions cut in rounds, the potatoes peeled and diced, the tomatoes peeled and cut up, the branch of basil, some sea salt and enough water to cover them. This done, she put on the lid, put more wood on the fire and we went down to the beach. An hour later the fire had expired, the fresh beans were tender, white, delicious and just immersed in a fragrant sauce.

The quantity, however, was so copious that at evening I took some to our neighbour who lived in a walled fruit garden across the onion fields, the old Erynni, who, brought up with prejudice and believing them to be cooked by me and foreign in consequence, later threw them to the pig.”

With that, I wish you Καλό Σαββατοκύριακο (happy weekend) and καλή όρεξη (good appetite)! And, as ever, ευχαριστώ (thank you) for reading The Shepherd and the Olive Tree.